Benzaldehyde C 6 H 5 CHO is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring with a formyl substituent. It is the simplest aromatic aldehyde and one of the most industrially useful. It is a colorless liquid with a characteristic almond -like odor. The primary component of bitter almond oil, benzaldehyde can be extracted from a number of other natural sources.
His experiments focused on elucidating the nature of amygdalinthe poisonous material found in bitter almondsthe fruit of Prunus dulcis. As oftonnes of synthetic and tonnes of natural benzaldehyde were produced annually.
Numerous other methods have been developed, such as the partial oxidation of benzyl alcoholalkali hydrolysis of benzal chlorideand the carbonylation of benzene.
This reaction also yields acetaldehyde. The natural status of benzaldehyde obtained in this way is controversial. Benzaldehyde and similar chemicals occur naturally in many foods.
Most of the benzaldehyde that people eat is from natural plant foods, such as almonds. Almonds, apricotsapplesand cherry kernels contain significant amounts of amygdalin. This glycoside breaks up under enzyme catalysis into benzaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide and two equivalents of glucose. Benzaldehyde contributes to the scent of oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus. Benzaldehyde can be oxidized to benzoic acid ; in fact "[B]enzaldehyde readily undergoes autoxidation to form benzoic acid on exposure to air at room temperature"  causing a common impurity in laboratory samples.
Since the boiling point of benzoic acid is much higher than that of benzaldehyde, it may be purified by distillation. Benzyl alcohol can be formed from benzaldehyde by means of hydrogenation.
Reaction of benzaldehyde with anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride yields cinnamic acidwhile alcoholic potassium cyanide can be used to catalyze the condensation of benzaldehyde to benzoin.
Benzaldehyde undergoes disproportionation upon treatment with concentrated alkali Cannizzaro reaction : one molecule of the aldehyde is reduced to the benzyl alcohol and another molecule is simultaneously oxidized to benzoic acid.
With diols, including many sugars, benzaldehyde condenses to form benzylidene acetals. Benzaldehyde is commonly employed to confer almond flavor to foods and scented products. It is sometimes used in cosmetics products.
In industrial settings, benzaldehyde is used chiefly as a precursor to other organic compounds, ranging from pharmaceuticals to plastic additives. The aniline dye malachite green is prepared from benzaldehyde and dimethylaniline.
Benzaldehyde is also a precursor to certain acridine dyes. Via aldol condensationsbenzaldehyde is converted into derivatives of cinnamaldehyde and styrene. The synthesis of mandelic acid starts with the addition of hydrocyanic acid to benzaldehyde:.
The resulting cyanohydrin is hydrolysed to mandelic acid. The scheme above depicts only one of the two formed enantiomers.
Benzaldehyde is used as a bee repellent. The bees then move away from the honey combs to avoid the fumes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Benzaldehyde . Benzenecarboxaldehyde Phenylmethanal Benzoic aldehyde. CAS Number.This file is a part of the Rhodium site archive.
This Aug static snapshot is hosted by Erowid as of May and is not being updated. Table of Contents. P2P from Benz y l C y anide. P2P from Phen y lacetic Acid. Friedel-Crafts Alk y lation of Benzene with 2-Nitropropane. Reduction of Phen y lNitro p ro p ene. Friedel-Crafts Alk y lation of Benzene with Chloroacetone.
H y drol y sis of E p hedrine Derivatives. Semi p inacol Rearran g ement of Phen y lPropanal. Ox y thallation of al p ha -meth y lst y rene. Witti g reaction of Benzaldeh y de. Cu I -catal y zed Ar y lation of Potassium Acet y lacetonate. Pd-catal y zed Ar y lation of Iso p ro p en y l Acetate. Alk y lation of Benz y l c y anide with Trimeth y laluminium.
P2P from Phen y lacetaldeh y de and Dimeth y l Cadmium. Aside from the often amateurish reduction of pseudo ephedrine to methamphetamine, the most popular precursor to amphetamine and methamphetamine is phenylpropanone also called P2P, BMK, Benzyl Methyl Ketone or Phenylacetone.
There is an astounding array of synthetic routes to this compound, both due to the relative simple structure of the compound, and also because of its popularity. Many of the earliest routes to the compound has been more or less abandoned due to restrictions on the pre-precursors used to make it, but there has always sprung up new methods of performing the feat of making this compound. Here is a collection of some of the possible methods of synthesizing phenylpropanone, ranging from simple one-step methods to elaborate multi-step variants, and from the very easy to the very complicated.
Welcome to the world of P2P. Many of the syntheses can also be tweaked to produce substituted phenylpropanones, such as the ever popular MDMA precursor MDP2P 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylpropanone by using starting materials with the desirable aromatic substituents. Appearance: Clear oil, flowery odor. Molecular Weight: Density : 1. Refractive Index: 1. To the hot. The mixture is. The next morning the mixture is stirred with a wooden rod to. The sodium salt. The combined filtrates are placed in the freezing mixture until they can be worked up as indicated below.
The sodium salt still wet with ether is dissolved in 1. The precipitate separated by suction filtration and washed four times.Methamphetamine is most structurally similar to methcathinone and amphetamine. Synthesis is relatively simple, but entails risk with flammable and corrosive chemicals, particularly the solvents used in extraction and purification; therefore, illicit production is often discovered by fires and explosions caused by the improper handling of volatile or flammable solvents.
The six major routes of production begin with either phenylpropanone P2P or with one of the isomeric compounds pseudoephedrine and ephedrine. One procedure uses the reductive amination of phenylpropanone phenylacetone with methylamine, P2P was usually obtained from phenylacetic acid and acetic anhydride, though many other methods have been considered, and phenylacetic acid might arise from benzaldehyde, benzylcyanide, or benzylchloride.
Methylamine is crucial to all such methods, and is produced from the model airplane fuel nitromethane, or formaldehyde and ammonium chloride, or methyl iodide with hexamine. This was once the preferred method of production by motorcycle gangs in California, until DEA restrictions on the chemicals made the process difficult. Pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, phenylacetone, and phenylacetic acid are currently DEA list I and acetic anhydride is list II on the DEA list of chemicals subject to regulation and control measures.
This method can involve the use of mercuric chloride and leaves behind mercury and lead environmental wastes. The methamphetamine produced by this method is racemic, consisting partly of the unsought levomethamphetamine isomer. The alternative Leuckart route also relies on P2P to produce a racemic product, but proceeds via methylformamide in formic acid to an intermediate N-formyl-methamphetamine, which is then decarboxylated with hydrochloric acid.
Two infrequently used reductive amination routes have also been reported. The "nitropropene route", in which benzaldehyde is condensed with nitroethane to produce 1-phenylnitropropene, which is subsequently reduced by hydrogenation of the double bond and reduction of the nitro group using hydrogen over a palladium catalyst or lithium aluminum hydride.
The "oxime route" reacts phenylpropanol with hydroxylamine to produce an oxime intermediate which likewise is hydrogenated using hydrogen over a palladium catalyst or lithium aluminum hydride.
Illicit methamphetamine is more commonly made by the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, which produces the more active d-methamphetamine isomer. Most methods of illicit production involve protonation of the hydroxyl group on the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine molecule.
Though dating back to the discovery of the drug, the Nagai route did not become popular among illicit manufacturers until ca. The hydrogen iodide is replaced by iodine and water in the "Moscow route" The hydrogen iodide is used to reduce either ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine. On heating the precursor is rapidly iodinated by the hydrogen iodide to form iodoephedrine. The phosphorus assists in the second step, by consuming iodine to form phosphorus triiodide which decomposes in water to phosphorous acid, regenerating hydrogen iodide.
Synthesis of P2P
Because hydrogen iodide exists in a chemical equilibrium with iodine and hydrogen, the phosphorus reaction shifts the balance toward hydrogen production when iodine is consumed. In Australia, criminal groups have been known to substitute "red" phosphorus with either hypophosphorous acid or phosphorous acid the "Hypo route".
This is a hazardous process for amateur chemists because phosphine gas, a side-product from in situ hydrogen iodide production, is extremely toxic to inhale. The reaction can also create toxic, flammable white phosphorus waste.
The conceptually similar Emde route involves reduction of ephedrine to chloroephedrine using thionyl chloride SOCl 2followed by catalytic hydrogenation.
The catalysts for this reaction are palladium or platinum. The Rosenmund route also uses hydrogen gas and a palladium catalyst poisoned with barium sulfate Rosenmund reductionbut uses perchloric acid instead of thionyl chloride. The Birch reduction, also called the "Nazi method", became popular in the mid-to-late s and comprised the bulk of methamphetamine production in Michigan in It reacts pseudoephedrine with liquid anhydrous ammonia and an alkali metal such as sodium or lithium.
The reaction is allowed to stand until the ammonia evaporates.It is a colorless oil that is soluble in organic solvents. This substance is used in the manufacture of methamphetamine and amphetaminewhere it is commonly known as P2P.
Due to the illicit uses in clandestine chemistryit was declared a schedule II controlled substance in the United States in Sodium acetate has been used instead of pyridine. In the 20th century chloroacetonebenzeneand anhydrous aluminum chloride were used to synthesize phenylacetone.
In the TV series Breaking BadWalter White manufactures methamphetamine through an enantioselective variation of the P2P method, starting from phenylacetone. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Benzyl methyl ketone; Methyl benzyl ketone; Phenylpropanone. CAS Number. Interactive image. PubChem CID. Chemical formula. Metabolic pathways of amphetamine in humans [sources 1]. Benzoic acid. Hippuric acid. Para- Hydroxylation. Beta- Hydroxylation. DBH [note 1].
Oxidative Deamination. Glycine Conjugation. Department of JusticeDrug Enforcement Administration. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Allen, A.
Journal of Forensic Sciences. The illicit synthesis of phenylpropanone P2P in clandestine drug laboratories from phenylacetic acid and acetic anhydride in the presence of sodium acetate or pyridine, or from the dry distillation of phenylacetic acid and lead II acetate is examined.
Philip Mason; Lewis I.Drug Times. The next major category of precursors, apart from the phenylace-tones, are the p-Nitropropenes. One can see the two representative examples for X and meth in the little drawing below:. As you can see, there is a nitrogen right in the exact place where one wants it. That is definitely a step in the right direction.
But Strike was not very keen on these intermediates because there was really only one decent way to make them that Strike favored and the ways to make final product out of them were not too hot as well. But a lot of things have changed for Strike in a year's time and there are a lot of new promises for this route. So read what Strike has for ya here, then go to Rhodium's Chapter where some inventive new p-Nitropropene recipes can be found.
Let's start things off with the basic recipe for this precursor..
METHOD 1: This section is going to be as thoroughly helpful to those interested in X production as it will be to those interested in amphetamine production. The process is known as the Knoeve-nagel-Walter condensation which can turn a substituted benzal-dehyde such as piperonal X or plain old benzaldehyde speed into an intermediate called a p-nitropropene.
Piperonal, also known as Heliotropin, can be made from sassafras oil.
It is also a very important chemical in the fragrance industry. But there are so many ways to make both it and benzaldehyde in the Build from Scratch section of this book that the Knoevenagel synthesis has a potential for resurrection from the heavy restrictions that the government has put on it.
Methamphetamine - Illicit Production - Synthesis
By heavy strike means that not only are the precursors controlled but so is the main processing chemical: nitroethane.
This substance does have a wide use in industry such that the chemist may come across some in daily life yeah, right or the stuff can be made as described in the Chemicals section. In fact, we have quite a few more recipes for making nitroethane than before! This procedure has been performed in a variety of ways [28 p, ] with variations in solvent, base and time of reaction.
For piperonal conversion, the consensus is toward the use of acetic acid as the solvent, ammonium acetate as the base and 4 hours of reflux time. Alexander Shulgin, a giant in this field, prefers the use of cyclohexylamine as the base. Strike would not tend to doubt this man's choice, especially since Strike is also getting the feeling that ammonium acetate is heading towards the schedule I graveyard.Phenylnitropropene is a chemical compound with the chemical formula is C 9 H 9 NO 2.
It can be produced by the reaction of benzaldehyde and nitroethane in the presence of a basic catalyst. In this reaction, the base deprotonates nitroethane to form a resonance stabilized anion. This anion nucleophilically adds to the aldehyde forming a beta nitro alcohol, which is subsequently dehydrated to yield the nitroalkene.
This reaction is known as a nitroaldol reaction. Phenylnitropropene is used to make pharmaceuticals. It is used in pharmaceutical industry to manufacture the drug Adderallan amphetamine mixture, which is used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. CAS Number. Interactive image. PubChem CID.
Chemical formula. Synthesis of phenylnitropropene. Categories : Nitro compounds Phenyl compounds Aromatic compound stubs. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. R-phrases outdated. This article about an aromatic compound is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.The synthesis of impurities detected in clandestinely manufactured Amphetamine Type Stimulants ATS has emerged as more desirable than simple "fingerprint" profiling.
We have been investigating the impurities formed when phenylpropanone P2P 5, a key ATS precursor, is synthesised in three steps; an aldol condensation of benzaldehyde and methyl ethyl ketone MEK ; a Baeyer-Villiger reaction; and ester hydrolysis. We have identified and selectively synthesised several impurities that may be used as route specific markers for this series of synthetic steps. Specifically these impurities are 3-methylphenylbutenone 3, 2-methyl-1,5-diphenylpenta-1,4-dieneone 9, 2- methylamino methylphenylbutene 16, 2- Methylamino methylphenylbutane 17, and 1- methylamino methyl-1,5-diphenylpentaeneone All rights reserved.
Abstract The synthesis of impurities detected in clandestinely manufactured Amphetamine Type Stimulants ATS has emerged as more desirable than simple "fingerprint" profiling. Publication types Research Support, Non-U.